||Thirty-five prayers translated from Hebrew into Ladino ((Judeo-Espanyol) by R. Jacob Elijah Tzurmani. There is an introduction by Rueben Elijah Israel and then the text. The prayers begin with selihot (6-20), the text, except for headers and the refrain, in rabbinic letters. The headers and refrain are in square letters. Next are pizmonim for the first day of Rosh Ha-Shanah (21-30), followed by liturgical prayers for the second day of Rosh Ha-Shanah (31-40). Next are the night of Yom Kippur day (41-43), Yom Kippur day (44-55), concluding with Viddui for Mussaf (56-79).
The Jews of Rhodes date their ancestry back to Genesis, quoting the mention of the island in the Book of Genesis! There was definitely a Jewish settlement on the island in antiquity and St. Paul visited the island, attesting to a Jewish settlement in the first century. The island was taken over by the crusader Knights of St. John, who built the walls of the fortified city, which still stand. It was within these fortified walls that the Jews would live for centuries. As with other communities throughout the Mediterranean, these Jews were Romaniote. With the takeover of the island by the Ottoman Turks, in 1522, Sephardim were brought to Rhodes and the community would become a traditional Sephardic one, speaking Ladino.
The island became part of Italy after WWI and with Mussolini’s Racial Laws in the 1930’s would begin to suffer Fascist persecutions. With the fall of Mussolini in 1943, the island was taken over by the Germans. There were over 1700 Jews still living there in July of 1944, when the community was rounded up and sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Only 151 would survive. Of the four synagogues still in existence in 1940, only Kahal Shalom would survive the intense bombing on the island. Today only 35 Jews live on Rhodes. Kahal Shalom, the oldest functioning synagogue still stands, a physical testimony to the endurance of the Jews of Rhodes.
||די ראש השנה כפור אי סליחות, איג'ה פור ראובן אליהו ישראל... [יוצא לאור על ידי] יעקב אליהו צורמאני, רודיס.
"תרגום חופשי של 35 שירים עבריים לראש השנה, כפור וסליחות", על פי הוצאת תרפ"ב, דף-על-דף.