||Tikkun Middot ha-Nifesh (The Improvement of the Moral Qualities) was translated into Hebrew from the Arabic by R. Judah ibn Tibbon (1167); the original Arabic manuscript is still extant. A popular exposition of ibn Gabirol's views, it has fared better, from a Jewish perspective, than the more metaphysical Mekor Hayyim. Unlike that work, Tikkun Middot has numerous biblical citations and omits Platonic philosophy. It was written in Saragossa in 1045, at the request of friends who wanted a work that addressed the qualities of man and how they might be improved. Tikkun Middot ha-Nefesh is unusual, for virtues and vices are explained in relationship to the senses and in it ibn Gabirol attempts to establish the principles of ethics intellectually apart from religious doctrine. Essentially, the qualities of the soul are made manifest through the senses. There are twenty moral qualities, four per physical sense, that is, two virtues and two vices, which in turn are constituted of the four humors of the human body. For example, under sight is pride, meekness, modesty, and impudence; under hearing, love, hate, mercy, and cruelty. Tikkun Middot ha-Nefesh has been reprinted several times and there is an English translation.
The renowned poet and philosopher, R. Solomon b. Judah ibn Gabirol (c. 102o-c. 1057), was born in Malaga, his great skill as a poet was already recognized when ibn Gabirol was young, and it is for his poetry that he is most widely remembered today. Considered by many the leading religious poet of medieval Spain, many of his piyyutim have been incorporated into the liturgy, including the Azharot, which has been the subject of several commentaries. Ibn Gabirol's secular poems are mostly about love or his own misfortunes. Ibn Gabirol's most important philosophical book, Mekor Hayyim (fountain of Life), was written in Arabic, as were many of his other works. Mekor Hayyim was translated into Latin as Fons Vitae, and as such it exerted a considerable influence on scholastic philosophy, the author being known as Avicebron. Xeoplatonic in outlook, and with few biblical and rabbinic citations, its Jewish authorship was forgotten until, in the 1840's, Solomon Munk discovered a manuscript of extracts made by R. Shem Tov ibn Falaquera in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris. Two ethical works are attributed to ibn Gabirol, Mivhar Peninim (Soncino, 1484), this of questionable attribution, and Tikkun Middot ha-Nefesh.
Luneville, a town in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department, N.E. France. Several Jews were mentioned in Luneville in 1470–72, just before the expulsion from the duchy of Lorraine. Two Jewish families were authorized to live in the town by an edict of 1753; there were 16 families residing there when the synagogue was constructed in 1785. A cemetery was not consecrated until 1791. The community numbered 315 persons in 1808. The Hebrew printing press belonging to Abraham Brisach operated there from 1797 till 1808, only 15 titles were printed in Luneville.