||Book of prayers for Rosh Hashanah. It includes the evening service, the afternoon service and the Tashlich prayer. On page fifteen (part of the evening service) a small addition is noted “"מנהג ק"ק כוגין לומר אלו הפסוקים קודם קדיש [according to the custom of the Cochin congregation].
Tashlich is a ceremony held near a sea or a running stream on the first day of Rosh Ha-Shanah, usually late in the afternoon. The term itself is derived from Micah 7:19: "Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea." The core of the ceremony is the recitation of Micah 7:18–20. Psalms 118:5–9; 33; 130; and Isaiah 11:9 are added in some rites. Kabbalists added quotations from the Zohar and there were other variants in different communities The origin of the custom is uncertain. There is no direct reference to the custom, however, until Jacob Moellin (d. 1425), in his Sefer Maharil (Warsaw ed. (1874), 38a), explains it as a reminder of the midrashic tale (Tanh. Va-Yera, 22) of Abraham's refusal to be deterred from his mission to sacrifice Isaac even after Satan had transformed himself into a brook obstructing his path. Other authorities suggest that, as fish never close their eyes, so the ceremony is symbolic of God's eyes, ever-open (Isaiah Horowitz, Shenei Luhot ha-Berit (Josefow ed. (1878), 139); or, as the fate of fish is uncertain, so is the ceremony illustrative of man's plight (cf. Eccles. 9:12; Moses of Przemysl, Matteh Moshe, Warsaw ed., 1876, 166). Moses Isserles (Torat ha-Olah, 3:56, Lemberg, 1858 ed., part 3, 48b) saw the ceremony as a tribute to the Creator, to Whose work of creation (this actually starting on Rosh Ha-Shanah) the fish were the first witnesses. Thus it was recommended that the ceremony be performed on the banks of a river where living fish are found (Magen Avraham to Sh. Ar., OH 583:2). However, when this is impossible the ceremony is performed even by a well of water as is customary in Jerusalem.
Bombay enters Jewish history in the middle of the 16th century. Then a small fishing island of no great economic significance, Bombay was leased out around 1554–55 to the celebrated Marrano scientist and physician Garcia da Orta, in recognition of his services to the viceroy. After the transference of Bombay to English rule the Jew Abraham Navarro expected to receive a high office in the Bombay council of the East India Company in recognition of his services. This was, however, denied to him because he was a Jew. In 1697 Benjamin Franks jumped Captain Kidd's "Adventure Galley" in Bombay as a protest against Kidd's acts of piracy; his deposition led to Kidd's trial in London. The foundation of a permanent Jewish settlement in Bombay was laid in the second half of the 18th century by the Bene Israel who gradually moved from their villages in the Konkan region to Bombay. Their first synagogue in Bombay was built (1796) on the initiative of S. E. Divekar. Cochin Jews strengthened the Bene Israel in their religious revival. The next largest wave of immigrants to Bombay consisted of Jewish merchants from Syria and Mesopotamia.. The Arabic-speaking Jewish colony in Bombay was increased by the influx of other "Arabian Jews" from Surat, who, in consequence of economic changes there, turned their eyes to India.
A turning point in the history of the Jewish settlement in Bombay was reached with the arrival in 1833 of the Baghdad Jewish merchant, industrialist, and philanthropist, David Sassoon (1792–1864). He and his house had a profound impact on Bombay as a whole as well as on all sectors of the Jewish community. Many of the educational, cultural, and civic institutions, as well as hospitals and synagogues in Bombay owe their existence to the munificence of the Sassoon family.
Unlike the Bene Israel, the Arabic-speaking Jews in Bombay did not assimilate the language of their neighbors, Marathi, but carried their Judeo-Arabic language and literature with them and continued to regard Baghdad as their spiritual center. They therefore established their own synagogues. A weekly Judeo-Arabic periodical, Doresh Tov le-Ammo, which mirrored communal life, appeared from 1855 to 1866 Hebrew printing began in Bombay with the arrival of Yemenite Jews in the middle of the 19th century. They took an interest in the religious welfare of the Bene Israel, for whom - as well as for themselves - they printed various liturgies from 1841 onward, some with translations into Marathi, the vernacular of the Bene Israel. Apart from a short-lived attempt to print with movable type, all this printing was by lithography. In 1882, the Press of the Bombay Educational Society was established (followed in 1884 by the Anglo-Jewish and Vernacular Press, in 1887 by the Hebrew and English Press, and in 1900 by the Lebanon Printing Press), which sponsored the publication of over 100 Judeo-Arabic books to meet their liturgical and literary needs, and also printed books for the Bene Israel. The prosperity of Bombay attracted a new wave of Jewish immigrants from Cochin, Yemen, Afghanistan, Bukhara, and Persia. The political events in Europe and the advent of Nazism brought a number of German, Polish, Rumanian, and other European Jews to Bombay, many of whom were active as scientists, physicians, industrialists, and merchants. Communal life in Bombay was stimulated by visits of Zionist emissaries.