||Uriel Acosta, original name Gabriel Da Costa (c. 1585-1640), freethinking rationalist who became an example among Jews of one martyred by the intolerance of his own religious community. He is sometimes cited as a forerunner of the renowned philosopher Benedict de Spinoza. The son of an aristocratic family of Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese Jews forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism), Acosta studied canon law and became the treasurer of a cathedral chapter. Disturbed by the conviction that there was no salvation through the Roman Catholic church, he turned to the Judaism of the Old Testament. After converting his mother and brothers to his beliefs, he and the family fled to Amsterdam and embraced Judaism. After circumcision, he took Uriel as his given name.
Acosta soon discovered, however, that the prevailing form of Judaism was not a biblical one but, rather, an elaborate structure based on rabbinic legislation. Stunned, he formulated 11 theses (1616) attacking rabbinic Judaism as nonbiblical, for which he was excommunicated. Acosta then prepared a larger work condemning rabbinic Judaism and denying the immortality of the soul (1623–24). For this denial, the Amsterdam magistracy arrested and fined him and deprived him of his books. A sensitive soul, Acosta found it impossible to bear the isolation of excommunication, and he recanted. Excommunicated again after he was accused of dissuading Christians from converting to Judaism, he made a public recantation in 1640 after enduring years of ostracism. This humiliation shattered his self-esteem, and, after writing a short autobiography, Exemplar Humanae Vitae (1687; “Example of a Human Life”), he shot himself. Acosta’s Exemplar depicted revealed religion as disruptive of natural law and a source of hatred and superstition. In contrast, he advocated a faith based on natural law and reason.