Sha’arei Dura, R. Isaac b. Meir Dueren, Jessnitz 1724 (49350)

שערי דורא - First Edition of Commentary

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Listing Details

Lot Number: 49350
Title (English): Sha'arei Dura
Title (Hebrew): שערי דורא
Note: First Edition of Commentary
Author: R. Isaac b. Meir Dueren
City: Jessnitz
Publisher: Israel b. Abraham
Publication Date: 1724
Estimated Price: $300.00 USD - $600.00 USD
Content/listingImages/20200503/1f510870-6814-481a-a572-ad4d2498f007_fullsize.jpg Content/listingImages/20200503/800475c8-4615-4254-8472-857f7e5c03db_fullsize.jpg Content/listingImages/20200503/eb74aa35-2b91-4cf2-a6c1-e694c5f0e72b_fullsize.jpg


Physical Description

First edition of commentary. [3], 66, 8 ff., 336:215 mm., usual light age staining, wide crisp margins, old hands. A very good copy bound in contemporary half leather and marbled paper over boards, rubbed.


Detail Description

R. Isaac b. Meir Dueren (second half of 13th century), German halakhic authority on the laws of issur ve-hetter. R. Isaac's surname Dueren derives from the town of that name in Germany. In his youth he studied under R. Tobias b. Elijah of Vienne in France. The period of R. Dueren's activity has hitherto been uncertain owing to the possibility of his having been confused with other contemporary local scholars of the same name. His date however can now be determined with some precision. Not only does R. Israel Isserlein state (Pesakim u-Khetavim, no. 215) that R. Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg is to be regarded as a batrai ("a later authority") compared with R. Dueren. R. Dueren is chiefly known for his Sha'arei Dura (Issur ve-Hetter shel Rabbi Yizhak mi-Dura, She'arim mi-Dura, Dura, etc.), which deals with the laws of forbidden food and of menstruant women. This book, based wholly upon the traditions of Germany and France, became the basis of halakhah in this difficult sector, exerting a decisive influence upon all Ashkenazi halakhic authorities after him from the Aguddah of R. Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen through Terumat ha-Deshen of R. Israel Isserlein until Torat Hattat of R. Moses Isserles. The early halakhic authorities guided themselves by the rule that R. Isaac was to be followed in issur ve-hetter even when he was lenient, although the rule did not apply to terefot (Pesakim u-Khetavim, no. 215). Sha'arei Dura was first published in Cracow in 1534. Since then it has been republished many times with the addition of many glosses and commentaries by the greatest talmudists in each generation, among them R. Israel Isserlein, R. Solomon Luria, R. Elijah Loans, and R. Nathan Spiro. These glosses, as well as those of the scholars who preceded R. Israel Isserlein, were sometimes indiscriminately incorporated into the text, so that it is difficult, without the aid of manuscripts, to determine the original content of the book. The book was regarded with such sanctity that R. Hayyim b. Bezalel, brother of R. Judah Loew of Prague, complains about R. Moses Isserles' daring to deviate in his Torat Hattat from the order of Sha'arei Dura. He also wrote tosafot to Gittin and Kiddushin.

With the commentary of R. Mordecai b. Abraham Jaffee (c. 1535–1612), talmudist, kabbalist, and communal leader. Born in Prague, R. Jaffe was sent as a boy to Poland to study under R. Solomon Luria and R. Moses Isserles. There he devoted himself also to the study of astronomy and philosophy (apparently at the instance of R. Isserles). At the same time he studied Kabbalah under R. Mattathias b. Solomon Delacrut. After a few years he returned to Prague, where in 1553 he was appointed head of the yeshiva. Very soon he discovered that the students were not interested in mere understanding of the Talmud but preferred "pilpul" and "were turning the word of the living God into false, corrupt, and evil words" (Preface to his Levush Malkhut). R. Jaffe chose therefore "to minimize the time spent with these students" and applied himself to writing constructive books. He was head of the yeshiva in Prague until 1561, when, by order of the emperor Ferdinand, the Jews were expelled from Bohemia. Jaffe then went to Venice and studied astronomy (1561-71). In 1572 he was elected rabbi of Grodno; in 1588, rabbi of Lublin, where he became one of the leaders of the Council of Four Lands. Later R. Jaffe accepted the rabbinate of Kremenetz. In 1592 he was called as rabbi to Prague; from 1599 until his death he occupied the position of chief rabbi of Posen.

The printer, Israel ben Abraham, was a proselyte who began printing in Koethen. In order for him to print in Koethen it was necessary for the city to accommodate his Jewish workers. Since they were not allowed to reside in the city, Israel ben Abraham left Koethen for Jessnitz, where he did not face the same obstacles.


Hebrew Description:

... נדפס... מכמה מאות שנים [! לובלין של"ד]... ועתה העיר ה' את רוח... ר' משה (אויערבך) יצ"ו ממעזריטש ולע"ע מתושבי... דעסוי והמדינה... ונוסף עליו (חידושים) כתיבת ידי ... מהר"ם [ר' מרדכי] יפה... מהר"ם [ר' משה אויערבך] הנ"ל... הוציא הס'... לאורו... והוגה... הוסיף בסוף הספר קצת חידושיו...

חידושי המו"ל (ח דף): על מסכת ברכות ושבת - חידושי אגדות, על מסכת פסחים וכתובות - חידושי הלכה תוספות. השער בתוך מסגרת מצוירת הזהה למסגרת השער בספר זית רענן, דעסויא תמ"ו (קפלן 195) ובשוליו: Cum Licentia Serenissimi. בישיבת פוניבז' בבני ברק טופס עם שער שונה. המסגרת הוחלפה בפשוטה יותר ונוסח השער באותיות מוגדלות. השורה בלאטינית הושמטה, וכן נשמטו הברכה לדוכס וכמה מתאריו. ידועים טפסים על קלף.

הסכמות: ר' יחיאל מיכל ב"ר יהודא ליב, ברלין, טו טבת תפ"ד; ר' צבי הירש ב"ר נפתלי הירץ [אשכנזי], הלברשטט, ו טבת תפ"ד; ר' יוסף יצחק ב"ר גרשון, דעסויא, יז טבת תפ"ד.



Bibliography of the Hebrew Book 1470-1960 #000178204; EJ; JE; Ta-Shema, in: Sinai, 64 (1969), 254–7.